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Sore throat is not really a disease, but rather a symptom that accompanies many illnesses!


There is a kind of illness so familiar that few of us may have never heard of it or even experienced it in our lifetime. It was just a sore throat.

However, the correct understanding of this disease and in order to have the right way to prevent and treat it correctly, surely there are still a lot of people still confused and of course there are still ways to do harm in the prevention and treatment of disease, both harming themselves and harming others in the community.

What happens when the throat is inflamed?

An inflamed throat can cause the following signs or symptoms:


If you have a sore throat, you may experience the following unpleasant or even miserable symptoms:

  • Sore throat, itching, burning
  • Pain increases with each speech or swallow
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Pain and swelling in the glands in the neck or jaw
  • Amindan is red, swollen, and inflamed with pus
  • The voice is hoarse or muffled

Additionally, if your sore throat is caused by an infection, you may also experience the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Sneezing, runny nose, cough
  • Aches
  • Headache
  • Possible nausea and vomiting

So when should we see a doctor?


Normally sore throat is just a normal disease, most sore throat sufferers only spend a few days there, then get well and come to work.

However, many people suffer from persistent sore throats and even chronic pharyngitis and are almost ready to live with it. This means that although a sore throat can cause problems, fatigue and misery, but not directly dangerous for the immediate life of the patient.

However, the condition becomes really dangerous and requires quick and positive action, if you find yourself in the following situations:

For children:

Take care of your baby right away and see a doctor right away if your baby has serious signs and symptoms such as:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Unusual drool

For adults

See your doctor urgently, if you have hoarseness that lasts longer than 2 weeks, if you have frequent recurring sore throats, or if you have the following signs and symptoms that last for more than a week without improving:

  • Severe sore throat
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Difficult to open your mouth
  • Earache
  • There is a tumor in the neck
  • Swollen neck
  • Swelling of the face
  • Arthritis
  • Skin rash
  • Fever above 38.3 ° C
  • Blood in saliva or sputum

So why have a sore throat?


A sore throat can be caused by many things, but the most common cause of a sore throat is a virus, such as a cold or the flu. Bacterial sore throats are less common.

Viral sore throat:

  • First of all, it can be said that viruses which cause colds like adenovirus and which cause flu like influenza virus are also responsible for most sore throats. In addition, a viral sore throat also occurs in the following cases:
  • Mononucleosis, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The virus is mainly spread through the saliva from the mouth of an infected person or when an infected person coughs, sneezes, kisses or drinks together. The disease is not transmitted by blood.
  • Measles, caused by the RNA virus of the genus Morbillillin, belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and has only one natural host, a human. The disease was once a terrible nightmare for humans, before vaccination killed nearly 3 million people each year. And, today, measles is still a dangerous infectious disease causing epidemics and one of the leading killers of children under 5 years old.
  • Chickenpox (also known as chickenpox) is an acute infectious disease caused by the chickenpox virus. This virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults.
  • Bronchitis in children – a condition that causes edema of the larynx and trachea, leading to the narrowness of the airways below the vocal cords (subglottis) and noisy breathing, difficulty breathing and a severe dry cough. The most common form of the disease is caused by a virus called “paramyxovirus type 1”.
  • And, maybe we shouldn’t forget to mention a sore throat caused by a particular virus variant, which has caused terrifying shocks and losses to mankind without ever knowing them. We really brought it back in the past, they are Covid-19 viruses.

Bacterial sore throat

Some bacterial infections can cause a sore throat. The most common is Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) which causes sore throat. There are also other bacteria which can cause sore throat like strep group C and G, chlamydia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and gonorrhea bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae etc.

Cases of sore throats caused by other causes:

  • Other causes of sore throat can be:
  • Allergy. Allergies to animal hair, mold, dust and pollen can cause sore throats. The problems can be complicated if a postnasal drip occurs, which drains from the sinus system through the back of the nose to the back of the throat, which can cause irritation and inflammation in the throat, causing throat irritation, sore throat and coughing.
  • Indoor air and habitat are too dry. It is also a common cause of sore throats, especially during the dry season. Also, due to the stuffy nose that the patient has to breathe through the mouth, the throat can become dry and inflamed.
  • Irritants such as cigarette smoke, hot spicy foods, etc. can also cause a sore throat in many people.
  • Tension in the throat muscles is also prone to sore throat, the consequences of loud speech, prolonged screaming, etc.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease – a result of digestive disorders, stomach acid builds up in the esophagus, causing sore throat.
  • HIV infection. Sore throats and other flu-like symptoms can also appear early in someone with HIV.
  • Cases of throat, tongue or larynx tumors, throat abscesses, epiglottitis, etc. also often cause sore throat, airway obstruction, etc. and require urgent medical attention.


Although anyone can get strep throat, in reality, if there are people who rarely have a sore throat, there are also people who have it very often.

Here are some factors that make a person more susceptible to a sore throat, such as:

  • Age: Children and adolescents are more likely to have a sore throat than older people, especially children between the ages of 3 and 15.
  • Cigarette. Smoking cigarettes, even exposure to cigarette smoke, can irritate the throat, increasing the risk of oral and throat cancer.
  • Allergy. Seasonal allergies, allergies to factors such as dust, mold, pet hair, etc.
  • Chemistry. Exposure to chemical irritants, coal dust particles, fossils, or household chemicals can also irritate the throat.
  • Chronic sinus infection. A runny nose can irritate the throat and spread the infection that causes a sore throat.
  • Gathering of people. Viruses and bacteria are easily spread from person to person, through direct or indirect contact with objects, and the risk of infection is especially high when people congregate in any form in a day care center. , a classroom, an office, a theater or a car, airplane, etc …
  • Impaired immunity. In general, the lower the resistance, the higher the risk of infection. The risks of reducing human resistance such as HIV, diabetes, chemotherapy, steroid treatments, stress, fatigue, lack of appetite and especially poor sleep, etc.

So how can we treat or prevent sore throats?


Prevent sore throat

Before we have to go to a doctor or hospital, what we can do is take active precautions. The best way to prevent a sore throat is to avoid infections and practice good hygiene.

Do yourself well and also teach your children to practice some of the following well:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and often, especially after using the toilet, before eating, and after sneezing or coughing.
  • Avoid sharing food, glasses or utensils with other people.
  • Cough or sneeze into a tissue and immediately throw it in the trash. If necessary, sneeze into the elbow.
  • Use antiseptics such as soap, medical alcohol, etc.
  • When you drink drinking water from the tap, do not touch your mouth with the tap
  • Regularly clean nearby objects such as telephones, TV controls, air conditioners, etc. with an appropriate disinfectant. Particular attention should be paid to doing them well when visiting inns in hotels, motels, etc.
  • Keep a safe and necessary distance in front of the sick person.

Treat sore throat

In this part, I would like to highlight the following principles:

  • If the sore throat is caused by a virus such as influenza, the patient just needs to rest, the disease will go away on its own after about 5-7 days, no need to take antibiotics.
  • If the sore throat is caused by a bacterial infection such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, or especially strep throat, it should be treated properly and quickly with antibiotics to avoid complications.

I wish you good health, goodbye and see you soon!

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Docteur en Physiopathologie
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